2 ; 1 ; in Month : February (2021) Article No : ssrj-v2-1010
Mohammadreza Shahidipak

One of the phenomena of medieval development is development of civilization and transfer of heritage of antiquity to Middle Ages between societies, and this heritage was transferred to modern period when it reached its final development . The present study examines the physical role of medieval communities in the development and transmission of science.George Sarton considered Islamic civilization to be the main phenomenon in the history of science in the Middle Ages and named four periods of the history of science by the global scholars of Islamic civilization, such as AL- Birunee, George Sarton is the only historian of civilization who has defined the relationship between civilization and philosophy for the first time. In expressing the international face of civilization, in the era and in different parts of the world, he has defined its philosophical backgrounds. And culture is the emergence of civilization, which has been considered by historians after the history of the civilization of Durant and Twain, and they have paid attention to the physical role of the Prophet and the philosophical ideas after him in creating the foundations of civilization. Which is a fundamental stage in the history of world science, especially in the Maghreb, Andalusia and Europe, and the transfer of science to Europe and the preparation of the Renaissance, Many orientalists study the phenomenon of Islamic civilization and sciences in detail And has created the paradigm of Islamic civilization. The hypothesis of the research is that the phenomenological view of Islamic civilization was made by Islamic scientist . Ibn Khaldun (732-808) has studied nine centuries of the history of science in Islamic civilization, which is more than nine centuries of human scientific experience in the Middle Ages. Like Razi, but one hundred and eighty years later, he has categorized the sciences in Islamic civilization by expressing empirical reason and considering the fundamental separation of sciences in methods and ends.And has specified the separation of science from superstition and its evolution in Islamic civilization. Throughout the book Islamic Culture in Europe, Hunke has sought to define science in terms of science from Islamic civilization to the European Renaissance in the expression of several empirical sciences. The concept of science in Islamic civilization is the same as the classical heritage of Roman, Greek, Alexandrian and Iranian civilizations, and this concept is a factor of transfer and acceptance. Rosenthal considers the reason for the acceptance of the classical Greek heritage by Muslims to be of historical importance. It existed in India and Iran, and Islamic civilization did not exist without Greek heritage. The present study examines the concept of science in Islamic civilization in two contexts: the concept of science in Islamic civilization in natural and foundation sciences, in the case of chemistry, which is the starting point of the scientific method in the history of science and the modern scientific revolution after the ancient period in the Middle Ages. It is by Islamic civilization and the second has been done in the application of scientific method in humanities, which started with the emergence of humanities by Ibn Khaldun.

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